Ischemic heart disease
Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the India and it is also a major cause of disability. Heart problems may involve heart valves, its pumping action, conduction of electrical impulses, or coronary arteries etc. Some people are born with heart disease. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a disease characterized by reduced blood supply (ischemia) of the heart muscle, usually due to coronary artery disease.
Coronary artery disease
(CAD) is a narrowing of the coronary arteries, the vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle, generally due to the buildup of plaques in the arterial walls, a process known as atherosclerosis. Plaques are composed of cholesterol-rich fatty deposits and other substances. These arteries may get narrower and harder over time.
Angina,a symptom of CAD, is chest pain or discomfort that occurs when the heart muscle is not getting enough blood due to narrowing of coronary leading to reduced bold supply to a section of heart muscle. Angina may feel like pressure or a squeezing pain in the chest. The pain may also occur in the shoulders, arms, neck, jaw, or back. There are two forms of angina—stable or unstable. Stable angina happens during physical activity or under mental or emotional stress. Unstable angina is chest pain that occurs even while at rest, without apparent reason.
Over time, CAD can weaken the heart muscle. This may lead to heart failure, a serious condition where the heart can't pump blood the way that it should. An irregular heartbeat, or arrhythmia, can also develop.
A heart attack, also called a myocardial infarction, occurs when plaque totally blocks an artery carrying blood to the heart. It also can happen if a plaque deposit breaks off and totally blocks a coronary artery. Cells in the heart muscle do not receive enough oxygen and begin to die. The more time that passes without treatment to restore blood flow, the greater the damage to the heart.
Risk factors for ischemic heart disease -
- Lifestyle risk factors that can be prevented or changed:
- Treatable or partly treatable risk factors:
- Non-modifiable risk factors - ones that you cannot alter:
Smoking, lack of physical activity,obesity,an unhealthy diet,eating too much salt,excess alcohol
Hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetes, high cholesterol, high triglyceride, stress or depression.
Age, family history, male gender, early menopause in women
How can IHD be prevented?
Live a Healthy Lifestyle.
- Eat a healthy diet - diet low in fat and rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
- Restrict salt intake
- Maintain a healthy weight
- Exercise regularly
- Do not smoke
- Limit alcohol use
How can IHD be treated?
Medicines can treat factors such as high cholesterol, high blood pressure, an irregular heartbeat, and low blood flow. Medicines to treat angina, heart failure and heart attack are also available. In advanced disease, highly specialized medical treatment or surgical procedures may be needed.Back to top
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